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  1. 目录
  2. Custom Settings
  3. Manually Writing Instances

可以使用 Z.Data.JSON 模块以获得具有可读性的序列化 / 反序列化结果。要使用函数库中的相关机能,最简单的方法是定义好目标数据类型,派生出 GenericJSON 实例,可以利用它们来处理如下:

  • 使用 fromValue 函数将类型为 Value 的元素转换为对应的 Haskell 值
  • 使用 toValue 函数将 Haskell 值转换为对应的类型为 Value 的元素
  • 使用 encodeJSON 将 Haskell 值转换为对应的 JSON 字节表示
class JSON a where
  toValue :: a -> Value
  fromValue :: Value -> Converter a
  encodeJSON :: a -> B.Builder () -- 将 `Z.Data.Builder` 以 `B` 导入


{-# LANGUAGE DeriveGeneric, DeriveAnyClass, DerivingStrategies #-}

import GHC.Generics (Generic)
import qualified Z.Data.Builder as Builder
import qualified Z.Data.JSON as JSON
import qualified Z.Data.Text as T

data Person = Person {name :: T.Text, age :: Int}
    deriving (Show, Generic)
    deriving anyclass (JSON.JSON)

可以以如下方式进行 JSON 的编码与解码:

> JSON.toValue (Person{ name="Alice", age=16 })
Object [("name",String "Alice"),("age",Number 16.0)]
> JSON.encode (Person{ name="Alice", age=16 })
> JSON.encodeText (Person{ name="Alice", age=16 })
> JSON.decodeText' "{\"age\":16,\"name\":\"Alice\"}" :: Either JSON.DecodeError Person
Right (Person {age = 16, name = "Alice"})

Z.Data.JSON 一同使用时,作为 Generic 实例的 Haskell 数据类型满足如下规则:

  • 没有载荷(零元)的构造器被直接编码为 JSON 字符串,例如 data T = A | B 被编码为 "A" or "B"
  • 单构造器的类型在编码时会省略构造器本身(如果构造器有载荷):
    • 记录(Record)被编码为一个 JSON 对象,例如 data T = T{k1 :: .., k2 :: ..} 被编码为 {"k1":...,"k2":...}
    • 普通的积类型被编码成 JSON 数组,如 data T = T t1 t2 被编码成 "[x1,x2]"
    • 单字段的积类型将直接编码载荷,如 data T = T t 直接被编码为 "x"
  • 多构造器类型将转换为单键 JSON 对象(如果构造器有载荷):
    • 如上情况可以组合,如 data T = A | B {k1 :: .., k2 :: ..} 会被编码成 "A"{"B":{"k1":...,"k2":...}},取决于元素本身的构造。
    • 普通的和类型也适用如上,但在外层以一个单键对象包装以表明元素本身的构造。


  • Maybe a are encoded as JSON null in Nothing case, or directly encoded to its payload in Just case.
  • [a] are encoded to JSON array, [Char] are encoded into JSON string.
  • NonEmpty, Vector, PrimVector, HashSet, FlatSet, FlatIntSet are also encoded to JSON array.
  • Bytes are encoded into JSON text using base64 encoding.
  • HashMap, FlatMap, FlatIntMap are encoded to JSON object.

Custom Settings

There’re some modifying options if you providing a custom Settings, which allow you to modify field name or constructor name, but please DO NOT produce control characters during your modification, since we assume field labels and constructor name won’t contain them, thus we can save an extra escaping pass. To use custom Settings just write:

data T = T {fooT :: Int, barT :: [Int]} deriving Generic
instance JSON.JSON T where
    -- You can omit following definitions if you don't need to change settings
    toValue = JSON.gToValue JSON.defaultSettings{ JSON.fieldFmt = JSON.snakeCase } . from
    encodeJSON = JSON.gEncodeJSON JSON.defaultSettings{ JSON.fieldFmt = JSON.snakeCase } . from
> JSON.toValue (T 0 [1,2,3])
Object [("foo_t",Number 0.0),("bar_t",Array [Number 1.0,Number 2.0,Number 3.0])]

Manually Writing Instances

You can write JSON instances by hand if the Generic based one doesn’t suit you. Here is an example similar to aeson’s.

import qualified Z.Data.Text          as T
import qualified Z.Data.Vector        as V
import qualified Z.Data.Builder       as B
import qualified Z.Data.JSON          as JSON
import           Z.Data.JSON          ((.:), (.=), (.!), JSON(..))

data Person = Person { name :: T.Text , age  :: Int } deriving Show

instance JSON Person where
    fromValue = JSON.withFlatMapR "Person" $ \ v -> Person
                    <$> v .: "name"
                    <*> v .: "age"

    toValue (Person n a) = JSON.object ["name" .= n, "age" .= a]

    encodeJSON (Person n a) = JSON.object' $ ("name" .! n <> "age" .! a)
> toValue (Person "Joe" 12)
Object [("name",String "Joe"),("age",Number 12.0)]
> JSON.convert' `Person . JSON.Object $ V.pack [("name",JSON.String "Joe"),("age",JSON.Number 12.0)]
Right (Person {name = "Joe", age = 12})
> JSON.encodeText (Person "Joe" 12)

The Value type is different from aeson’s one in that we use Vector (Text, Value) to represent JSON objects, thus we can choose different strategies on key duplication, the lookup map type, etc. so instead of a single withObject, we provide withHashMap, withHashMapR, withFlatMap and withFlatMapR which use different lookup map type, and different key order piority. Most of time FlatMap is faster than HashMap since we only use the lookup map once, the cost of constructing a HashMap is higher. If you want to directly working on key-values, withKeyValues provide key-values vector access.

There’re some useful tools to help write encoding code in Z.Data.JSON.Builder module, such as JSON string escaping tool, etc. If you don’t particularly care for fast encoding, you can also use toValue together with value builder, the overhead is usually very small.